83,6 kg
58 cm
In diameter
340 MPa
Tensile strength
Dipole Antennas
VHF - 2.4 m
HF - 2.9 m
Radio transmitter
Power: 1W
Weight: ≈ 7 kg
Power Supply
Silver-zinc batteries
Mass: 51 kg
Thermal control system
Thermal relay
Thermal relay of the temperature control system
Fan control
Duct system
A canal inside the battery
Undergoes nitrogen circulation
Lower hemisphere
Waste heat rejection to outer space
Power сells
5 elements SCD-70
140 Ah 7.5 V
86 elements SPD-18
30 Ah 160 V
Switching device
Onboard electronic devices are connected to the batteries
The self-contained power supply crank relay
Sensors, thermal and pressure relay
SW 20.005 MHz
VHF 40.002 MHz
Shock absorbing plates
Body's vibrations softening
Nose fairing
Adapter section
The stage 2
1 combustion chamber powered by RD-108 engine
29,167 m
10,3 m
In diameter
267 t
7935 m/s
Maximum speed
The stage 1
4 combustion chambers powered by RD-107 engines
Period to orbit the Earth
228 km
Its perigee altitude
947 km
Its apogee altitude
20,005 MHz
40,002 MHz
Days spent in the space
completed orbits of the Earth
600 млн км

First in space

On October 4, 1957, for the first time in human history, the artificial satellite (Sputnik) was launched into a low Earth orbit.


Shape perfection

The Sputnik-1 is a sealed ball-shaped container. It's made of an ultra-strength aluminum-magnesium alloy 2 millimeters thick. The upper hemisphere is covered by a thermal protective shield 1 millimeter thick. Its polished surface absorbs self- and solar radiation.


Nothing in excess

The Sputnik's body consists of two hemispheres connected by 36 bolts. It is filled with nitrogen at internal pressure of 1.3 atmospheres. The Sputnik's operation and research data collection are provided by the minimum equipment. Its paired antennae broadcast uniformly radio ultra-short and short wave signals.

Thermal management

Climate control

Automatic system controls inside temperature and provides nitrogen circulation and heat dissipation from the board equipment to the lower hemisphere if temperature exceeds +23°C. Whenever temperature falls below +20...+23°C, the fan is automatically turned off by the thermal relay system.


21-day continuous run time

The onboard equipment is powered by silver-zinc batteries. The self-contained power supply system is activated after a nosecone fairing has separated. It is designed to operate for 2-3 weeks.


The warm, the lamp, and the vibey

The onboard radio, model d200, consisted of radio valve (model 2P19B 'Palma' (Palm) series), is DF of radio waves in the ionosphere. The upper part of the transmitter includes a relay and temperature and pressure sensors. The body's vibrations are softened by shock-absorbing plates.

The launch vehicle

The first cosmic one

The launch vehicle, indexed as 8K71PS No. 1 M1-PS, is a modified intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 rocket. The primary stage consists of 4 identical combustion chambers located around the combustion chamber of the stage 2. Engine ignition of both stages occurs simultaneously at a rocket launch. The fuel is kerosene, while the oxidizer is liquid oxygen.


A new era beginning

The rocket-Sputnik carrier was launched at 22:28:34 (MSK, UTC +3) on October 4th, 1957 from the training ground of the USSR Ministry of Defense (today called the Baikonur launch base). It reached the orbital velocity (the 1st cosmic velocity). 295 seconds after the launch the rocket's central block reached the Earth's elliptical orbit. 314,5 seconds later a nosecone fairing was dropped and the Sputnik separated.


More than just a space

The Sputnik's transmitters emitted signals lasting 0.3 seconds (20.005 and 40.002 MHz). Its radio signal ('Beep') made history and radio amateurs around the planet were listening to it within 21 days till the October 25th of 1957.

Space age symbol

On January 4th, 1958 the Sputnik 1 reentered the Earth's atmosphere and burned up in its dense layers. The Soviet's Sputnik became a major milestone of discovering space. Obtained data pertaining the upper layers of atmosphere, equipment's operation, and radio signals propagation in the ionosphere were extremely significant for the humankind.